The Temple of Romulus was dedicated by Emperor Maxentius to his son Valerius Romulus, who died in childhood in 309 and was rendered divine honors.
The temple now serves as an entrance to the basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano. It is one of the ancient churches called tituli, of which cardinals are patrons as cardinal-deacons: the current Cardinal Deacon of the Titulus Ss. Cosmae et Damiani is Beniamino Stella, created Cardinal on 22 February 2014.
The basilica, devoted to the two Greek brothers, doctors, martyrs and saints Cosmas and Damian, is located in the Forum of Vespasian, also known as the Forum of Peace.
The Temple of Romulus is the best preserved pagan temple in Rome.